Saturday, May 23, 2020
The results showed depressive symptoms did not differ between the non-complicated bereavement group and the unbereaved control group, both groups displayed little to no depressive symptoms. Although the CG showed slightly higher ratings of depressive symptoms, the results showed only mild to moderate depressive symptoms were present on average in the CG group (OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor Arizmendi, 2014). These results demonstrate the participants who were suffering from CG were not suffering from MDD. Results from the Digit Span Backwards subtest and Wisconsin Card Sorting Task did not show any significant differences between the control group or the two bereaved groups (OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor Arizmendi, 2014). This indicates working memory and set shifting were notÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Despite there results OÃ¢â¬â¢Connor and Arizmendi (2014) acknowledged their study must be replicated using a larger sample size to increase the studyÃ¢â¬â¢s reliability. The authors also suggested an fMRI would be useful to measure what neurological processes are distinctly different in those suffering from CG. Nonetheless, their study and two previous studies have shown attentional biases are present and affect the cognitive functioning in individuals experiencing CG. Attachment-based Model Shear et al. (2007) focused their studies on an attachment-based model of complicated grief with an emphasis on the contribution of avoidance. The attachment-based model assumes the loss of an attachment figure causes an interruption in an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s attachment working model. Shear et al. (2007) references BowlbyÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of attachment, which stated at a young age a baby develops an attachment bond to their caregiver or loved one. Shear et al. (2007) reported Bowlby theorized, as a child ages the attachment relationship is translated into an internalized working model. This working model provides a secure base, which allows an individual to utilize his/her exploratory system to discover new experiences and attain certain goals (Shear et al., 2007). Shear et al. (2007) postulated the loss of a loved one disrupts this attachment working model which can lead to
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 849 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2019/07/03 Category Ethics Essay Level High school Tags: Utilitarianism Essay Did you like this example? Act utilitarianism is an action that is morally required just because it does more to improve overall well-being than any other action you could have done in the circumstances. The principle of utility states that you should always perform the action that maximizes overall utility. Act utilitarianism and the principle of utility is a large portion of what I am going to refer to in this essay. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Utilitarianisms Principles And Moral" essay for you Create order The moral worth of any action is determined by outcome or consequences which explains why utilitarianism is a version of consequentialism. Utilitarianism is a form of teleological ethics. This idea is defended by John Stuart Mill (a hedonist), and an important British philosopher. A hedonist is a person who believes that the pursuit of pleasure is the most important thing in life; a pleasure-seeker. According to his beliefs, we are required to maximize the greatest good for the greatest good for the greatest number of people. I am defending an objection to this claim that utilitarianism has no real way to account for rights and that there is no action that is ruled immoral under this argument. In addition to this the argument of utilitarianism is ambiguous. The objection that I am defending states that (1) If utilitarianism is true, then it will never require us to commit serious injustices. (2) Utilitarianism sometimes requires us to commit serious injustices. So, (3) Utilitarianism is not true. Just because something makes all people happy does not make it right for all people. It is also wrong to harm certain individuals in order to make other people happy. The objection I am defending calls attention to problems to justice and in the rights of the individual and democratic equality. The first justice-related objection I am going to defend is problem of the violation of rights, for example, if there is a religious group whose practices are seen as offensive to the rest or majority of society. In a utilitarian population, members can decide that preventing the minority group from performing their religious acts would be proper for the well- being of the members. Consequently, because it would maximize the overall utility of the society. This can be seen as a problem because the group who holds different practices from the majority has their rights violated and impeded upon. According to the theory, if there is an event that occurs, that is not recognized as important or mandatory to the overall happiness of a given society, then it will not be supported. The principle is a selfish one because it is only having an interest in magnifying utilitarianism. This is can be demonstrated as negative principle for example, as shown in the television show, Black Mirror third season episode Men Against Fire. Soldiers are inserted with an implant called MASS, that distorts their reality. through their eyes, aliens are infected and steal from the citizens in the community, this results in the soldiers killing the infected people given the name roaches. One soldiers MASS glitches from a device made from the roaches. He then makes a discovery that after all the creatures he saw as monsters are just human. The military he works for is using the MASS to promote genocide. Utilitarianisms principles would categorize the scenario that takes place in the television show as plausible to make the genocide morally right, because it promoted happiness for the larger and powerful population of the community. While we know that genocide is morally wrong and cruel, in the position of utilitarianism, it would be seen as fitting. Another reason I am defending the objection of injustice is because it calls attention to problems pertaining to the violation of individuals religious and socioeconomic statuses as well as the rights appertaining to a person. I deny utilitarianism because it does not protect individuals against opinions of the majority. If the happiness of the people is increased enough, it can justify making one (or a few) miserable in service of the rest(psychology today.) Another component to take into account is that status of the person making the decisions. There could be a doctor who is known as a public figure who decides the fate of his/her patients. Suppose the doctor has to choose between five patients, and one has to have a heart transplant, two both need one lung each, one needs a liver, and the other a kidney. If a healthy candidate comes into the office the doctor could ponder to decide to inject him/her with a deadly solution, so they could contribute to the lives of the five unhealthy patients. He would consider this option because that is the option that would be viewed as doing the most good. In addition to that, because of the status and prestige of the person that can make the decision there would be no one to intervene with the deciding process. Utilitarianism can require that one commit unjust actions in certain situations, and because of this it is fundamentally flawed. We know that cruelty is wrong to do to an innocent person even if it can benefit others in the end.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
BUAD 490 3/14/13 Team Written Case Analysis (Concise) Biodel, Inc. BIODEL INC. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY BiodelÃ¢â¬â¢s use of biotechnology expertise in the three prime areas of Cell Biology, Molecular Biology, and Immunodiagnostics has led their company into some great opportunities. We will write a custom essay sample on Biodel Inc or any similar topic only for you Order Now Biodel created a synthetic serum to replace fetal calf serum and horse serum, and provide a more consistently available product for scientific researchers. BiodelÃ¢â¬â¢s Molecular Biology division used DNA technology to gain 60% of the market share of growth factors and stock the largest collection of commercially available synthetic nucleotides, which was 50% of their sales. BiodelÃ¢â¬â¢s research and development in Immunodiagnostics led to the invention of DEMA, a non-radioactive method for measuring a wide array of biologically important substance. The intelligence and vision of Dr. Oscar Feldman drove Biodel to a position of leadership in the biotechnology industry. Dr. Feldman has applied innovations in Cell Biology, Molecular Biology and Immunodiagnostics to increase market share for BiodelÃ¢â¬â¢s products. Dr. FeldmanÃ¢â¬â¢s scientific friends and academic contacts offered Biodel high-quality technological advice and links to scientific community, and led to sophisticated research and development advances. Now the company is at a crossroad with decisions and direction necessary. In addition to strategic planning, the company would benefit from a modest re-structuring to streamline operations and prepare for unexpected events. Their future investments should be in areas where patent protection is likely, and in directions and projects that exploit their native expertise in molecular biology and genetic engineering. These technologies seem likely to transform health care in the next two decades. Having survived the threat of bankruptcy, Biodel now has a more balanced contract research portfolio and is poised to develop an even greater impact in the future. CURRENT SITUATION BiodelÃ¢â¬â¢s projected revenues for 1980 consist of $1 million in contract research, and around $1. 5 million in research products. The contract research revenue was split 70% from industrial research, and 30% government research. This research included work in BiodelÃ¢â¬â¢s three main fields (molecular biology, cell biology, and immunology) as well as cancer chemotherapy and enzymology. These contracts are secured by Dr. Feldman through his relationships with other scientists. The revenue from research products also comes from the three main fields of Biodel. Nucleotides from the molecular biology area account for 50% of revenues, cell growth factors from the cell biology field account for 40%, and immunodiagnostics products account for the other 10%. Research product sales have been growing 35% over the last few years, even with limited marketing efforts. However, Biodel is being outcompeted in the immunodiagnostics market and further growth is not being pursued. Biodel has a very small staff, with the company split up into five different sections: the comptroller, advertising and sales, and then an experienced scientist manages each main field of the company. The scientists who manage their fields are all in charge of research and development, production, and even have some marketing responsibility. Dr. Feldman does not employ a marketing manager or a research director, instead filling both roles by himself. FeldmanÃ¢â¬â¢s style of management is very informal, preferring to walk around and talk to his employees rather than have them do unnecessary paperwork. The company itself is run more like an academic facility than a business, with the atmosphere more leaning towards challenging each other and making technological advances. In addition, employee turnover is very low so most of the staff is very experienced with the work that the company is doing. The staff is led by Dr. Feldman, who represents the main reason for low employee turnover. Biodel employees describe him as a unique and enthusiastic man, and the reason why the company is so successful. Marketing had been a very inconsistent department, with Dr. Feldman usually assuming all of the major marketing responsibilities. But when Dr. Feldman decided that he needed to market his company more aggressively he hired Mr. Steve Kaplan who had been a marketing manager at a large pharmaceutical company. However, Mr. Kaplan and Dr. Feldman soon disagreed on who should direct BiodelÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing strategy. Kaplan proceeded to spend a large amount of money on marketing, including hiring additional salespeople and other staff. These changes resulted in a 65% increase in sales, but marketing costs increased by 500%, which resulted in profits dropping from $95,000 in 1978 to $17,000 in 1979. As a result, Dr. Feldman is reconsidering Mr. KaplanÃ¢â¬â¢s direction in the marketing department. OPPORTUNITIES First, Biodel had under development a synthetic serum that would be used to satisfy growth requirements in cells. This would be an innovative product that could be a substitute for natural fetal calf serum and horse serum. However, a major problem with the fetal serum is the unstable fluctuation in cost. The cost is determined by the supply of the serum and the supply is determined by the number of calves that are slaughtered. The synthetic serum could offer a steady rate. The market is projected at $50 to $80 million. Biodel would have a competitive advantage over the competition and could attain 20% of the market share if they pursue this project. A big problem with this project is the uncertainty that Biodel will be able to receive a patent. That provides a major risk in this investment. Second, another project is available that is extremely intriguing to us. Biodel has the opportunity to produce a new product called DEMA. DEMA is a testing technology based on enzyme membranes rather than radioactivity. This product could be used to test for pregnancy, syphilis, hepatitis, cancer, toxins in food and carcinogens in the environment. DEMA is a healthier, safer, faster and cheaper way of testing than the radioactive method. There are no hazards or side effects to DEMA and it can provide the same results as radioactive tests. The problem with this project is the financial aspect. It is more expensive than the synthetic serum. Investments could total in the millions and the R costs could range from $1 to $3 million. However, this project has drawn the attention of major drug companies who are willing to participate in a joint venture with Biodel, which would help with the costs of the investment. Third, Biodel has been thinking about joining the genetic engineering field. The company has basic but not wide experience if this field but they have been a major supplier of molecular biology products. At the moment, there are four major competitors in the market; Cetus, Genentech, Genex and Biogen. The basic purpose of this field is to engineer a cell to produce a specific biological product. Competitors use the bacterium E. coli as their host cell, for the most part. Biodel has the opportunity to enter the market with a new strategy that involves the use of yeast as the host cell instead of E. coli. He and three other scientists believe that yeast would be a better host cell than E. coli. Yeast has a biochemical machinery that can allow the growth of medically relevant glycoproteins such as Interferon and Urokinase. These glycoproteins are used to inhibit the multiplication of cancerous cells and to disrupt blood clots. The investment costs for this project would be high, including salaries that Biodel would pay for Dr. Ballantine and three other highly successful scientists to work for them. However, the return on such an investment could be immense. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. The Biodel Board of Directors should hold annual or semi-annual Board meetings to review company progress. Dr. Feldman should delegate more. The Board should be expanded by 1 or 2 people to achieve greater diversity and breadth of expertise. Succession planning should be considered in case Dr. Feldman died, or a division head left. 2. Mr. KaplanÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing group should be streamlined and asked to focus on a marketing strategy for DEMA. The marketing group can probably be reduced to lower costs while maintaining the increase in research product sales. Challenge Kaplan to analyze the marketing group to understand the most valuable parts versus parts that are expendable. 3. Among the growth opportunities to pursue, the synthetic growth factor option does not seem likely to succeed. Although it is the least expensive investment, there is uncertainty that the patent protection can be obtained. Furthermore, researchers accustomed to fetal bovine serum may be unlikely to abandon a tried and true method. In contrast, the DEMA technology is a unique opportunity for Biodel. It eliminates the risks and hazards associated with radioactivity, which researchers would appreciate. There is a high likelihood of patent protection. Based on the information in the case, the company needs a better understanding of how to bring this product to market. This could be a great project for KaplanÃ¢â¬â¢s smaller marketing group. 4. Pursue Genetic Engineering, with the advice and guidance of the four academic experts. This is an important initiative and BiodelÃ¢â¬â¢s connections with the prize-winning scientists are important. They should be paid per diems and offered stock options. One of the four also should be invited to join the Biodel Board of Directors. APPENDIX A SWOT Analysis S- Strengths Biotechnology special expertise by the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s in Ã¢â¬â (three prime areas of focus/ other fields) 1. Cell biology Ã¢â¬â culture technology paid off 60% share growth factor market 40% offspring sales 2. Molecular biology Ã¢â¬â DNA paid off 60% share growth factor market Ã¢â¬â stocked largest commercially available synthetic nucleotides (50% of sales) 3. Immunodiagnostics biology a. Sub categories Ã¢â¬â Cancer chemotherapy Ã¢â¬â Enzymology Offered high-quality technological advice, numerous links to scientific community, highly sophisticated research and development service Feldman was able to secure contracts with his personal relationships with scientists in the government and industry Low employee turnover W Ã¢â¬â Weaknesses Molecular biology Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â researchers used numerous substitutes Immunodiagnostics biology large firms aggressively entered and has not expanded since 10% of sales of research products -1980 Ã¢â¬â profitability varied on depending on intensity of product research and development By the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s 60% of companyÃ¢â¬â¢s revenue was from commercializing research Reliant on government contracts when they started making cut backs Ã¢â¬â 85% contracts are government Ã¢â¬â forcing Biodel into 1st layoff (damaging to long-term otential) 55 employees scientists and technicians Ã¢â¬â no marketing manager or research director hired (Feldman filled both positions with widespread contacts and scientific expertise) Staff meetings rare and no regular reports required from subordinates Poor Marketing Ã¢â¬â Products sold by mail Depends on word of mouth Ã¢â¬â trade shows, advertising, direct mail, ad phone solicitation Ã¢â¬â customer service Ã¢â ¬Å"almost laughableÃ¢â¬ O Ã¢â¬â Opportunities Goal to manufacture and market biochemical products developed through their own research Cell Biology Ã¢â¬â synthetic serums to satisfy growth requirements in cell lines of tissue culture Ã¢â¬â replacing natural fetal calf serum (most widely used, horse serum was 2nd most widely used). Market of 50 million domestically and 80 million worldwide growing at 15%Ã¢â¬â no systematic analysis of serum market done Immunodiagnostics- opportunity to enter the market Ã¢â¬â new test technology based on enzyme membranes rather than radioactivity Ã¢â¬â new product DEMA Ã¢â¬â simpler, faster, and less expensive. Market in excess of $100 million and has potential to be over $1 billion. High possibility for a patent and a joint venture with a major drug company. Genetic engineering Ã¢â¬â exciting advantages/high return on investments Supplier of molecular biology products Ã¢â¬â nucleotides and synthetic genes sold Ã¢â¬â supported by genetic engineers Ã¢â¬â some cases biodel was soul supplier T Ã¢â¬â Threats Relying on government contracts lead them to the threat of bankruptcy BiodelÃ¢â¬â¢s spending strategies APPENDIX B How to cite Biodel Inc, Essay examples
Saturday, May 2, 2020
2006 Hurricane Risk Case Study Essay 1. How profitable are property and casualty insurance companies? Answer: Property and casualty insurance protects property (houses, cars, boats, and so on) against losses due to accidents, fire, disasters, and other calamities. Property and casualty policies tend to be short-term contracts and, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why the subject to frequent renewal is, and one more characteristic feature is the absence of savings component. Property and casualty premiums are based on the probability of sustaining the loss. To estimate the key determinant of the price of an insurance policy, i. . risks, insurance companies take third-party proceedings that develop models of catastrophe loss probabilities. Based on the numbers form Exhibit 5 of the case we see that according to AIR Worldwide which provides information on the loss probability that Insured Loss if the listed Hurricanes Recurred in 2006 is 151. 2% more than the case writer estimates of Actual Reported Damage in 2006. As you see from the table below differences in monetary terms and percentage change between these two different sources are huge except those figures with minus sign. So, we can say that prices are not fixed and depend on the third-party vendorsÃ¢â¬â¢ probability calculations which are much higher than actual estimates suggested by casewiters. Consequently, the profits of property and casualty insurance companies can be high. * Casewriter estimate ** Source: AIR Worldwide Besides, Reinsurance may reduce their risk exposure by allocating a portion of the risk to another company in exchange for a portion of the premium. Reinsurance allows writing larger policies because a portion of the policy is actually held by another firm. Also, profits of these companies strongly depend on unforeseen risks due to unpredictable nature of accidents, fire, natural disasters like hurricane, tsunami, etc. However, from the Exhibit 7 of the case we see that Investment Income is vitally important to continue operations of property-casualty insurance companies. To see the importance of the income from these companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ investments and to see how it affects Net Income we put zero in the line on Investment Income holding other numbers constant (based on Exhibit 7: Income Statistics): We see that without property-casualty companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ Investment Income the Net Income is negative. So, we can say that Insurance Losses is offset by Investment Income from which these companies only gain. 2. Purchasing insurance: what should Joe Martinez do? Answer: According to the statistical data in the Exhibit 1 (see the 2006, Hurricane risk case study) about the frequency of US Hurricanes by state of Landfall (1900-2004), we can say that, unfortunately the most frequent hurricanes happened on the Southeast of US, especially in Florida. But the most of them have only 1-3 categories. This means that hurricanes may cause damages trees, shrubs and average damage to the building. There was only one hurricane in the Florida, which had 1st category and seven of them had 4th category. The problem of Joe Martinez is that insurance rates are on the rise. These increases have been driven by a combination of higher than expected hurricane-related claims as well as increased costs related to reinsurance (i. e. , insurance sold to other insurers to mitigate the risk of losses). Beyond this, the recent economic turmoil has put additional strain on insurance companies, resulting in pressure to increase premiums. The bad thing is that Joe Martinez might be in need of hurricane protection. From the case, we know that his house near the beach and it was no match for direct hit from hurricane, and this is good thing. But there is a high probability that the hurricane will destroy or damage his house at the next time. In many cases, the damage caused by hurricanes will be covered by basic homeownerÃ¢â¬â¢s insurance policy. An increasing number of policies actually exclude hurricane-related damage, in which case heÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to buy additional coverage. Note that, even if he does have coverage, heÃ¢â¬â¢ll still need to keep a decent amount of cash on hand to protect himself. Is Counselling An Art Or Science EssayIn Diagram #1 (see the attachment 1 at the end of the document) you can see the portion of Property insurance premiums in the General insurance sector for 2007, 2008, 2009 years. Casualty insurance is included into General insurance sector. So in Diagram #2 (see the attachment 1 at the end of the document) you can see who the main players in this sector of insurance are. Kazakhstan insurance market for the first time showed growth during last two years. Kazakhstans insurance companies collected 74. 9 billion tenge in premiums in January-June 2010, or a 33. % increase compared to the same period last year, says a press release issued by the Kazakh Financial Supervision Agency (FSA). Within the overall volume of premiums, mandatory insurance amounted to 15. 8 billion tenge (up 21. 5% as compared to the same period last year), voluntary private insurance totaled 16. 4 billion tenge (up 56. 2%), and voluntary property insurance made 42. 7 billion t enge (a 31. 4% increase). According to the statement, the volume of insurance premiums collected for life insurance increased by 100% and totaled 7. 6 billion tenge as at July 1, 2010. Life insurance premiums accounted for 10. 1% of all the insurance premiums (6. 8% as at July 1, 2009). According to the State Financial Supervision Agency (FSA), with the purpose to better protect the interests of the insurance customers, to develop life insurance services, to introduce a consolidated supervision over the insurance companies, to develop the infrastructure of the insurance market on July 18, 2010 Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev has signed the law On Amendments to Some Legislative Acts of the Republic of Kazakhstan Concerning InsuranceÃ¢â¬ . The document bans bonds issue by insurance companies, restricts their borrowings and imposes additional requirements for the intermediary services. The new law also bans any payments in cash to the insurance agent by the client against the insurance contract starting January 1, 2012.
Sunday, March 22, 2020
Autism ?We start with an image?a tiny, golden child on hands and knees, circling round and round a spot on the floor in mysterious, self-absorbed delight. She does not look up, though she is smiling and laughing; she does not call our attention to the mysterious object of her pleasure. She does not see us at all. She and the spot are all there is, and though she is eighteen months old, an age for touching, tasting, pointing, pushing, exploring, she is doing none of these. She does not walk, or crawl up stairs, or pull herself to her feet to reach for objects. She doesn't want any objects. Instead, she circles her spot. Or she sits, a long chain in her hand, snaking it up and down, up and down, watching it coil and uncoil, for twenty minutes, half an hour--- until someone comes, moves her or feeds her or gives her another toy, or perhaps a book.? Excerpted from ?The Seige? By Clara Claiborne Park Autisma mysterious world where the unknowns still outnumber the knowns. A syndrome whose manifestations are many and whose etiology is suspected of being multi-causal? (Toscano, 5). ?The word autism still conveys a fixed and dreadful meaning to most people?they visualize a child mute, rocking, screaming, inaccessible, cut off from human contact. And we almost always speak of autistic children, rarely of autistic adults, as if such children never grew up, or were somehow mysteriously spirited off the planet, out of society. Or else we think of an autistic ?savant? a strange being with bizarre mannerisms and stereotypies, still cut off from normal life, but with uncanny powers of calculation, memory, drawing, whatever?like the savant portrayed in Rain Man. These pictures are not wholly false, but they fail to indicate that there are forms of autism which do not incapacitate in the same way, but may allow lives that are full of event and achievement, and a special sort of insight and courage too? (Grandin, 12). Autism was first identified as a disorder in 1943 by Dr. Leo Kanner. It was widely accepted that a child's autistic condition was the result of extremely, cold distant, rejecting and overly intellectual parenting. The child's extreme withdrawal was viewed as a refusal to engage in social or physical contact, rather than inability. The assumption therefore was that the familial environment being hostile was the cause of the child's refusal to become engaged. Professionals labeled this concept ?the refrigerator mother?. Today, much enlightened thinking, coupled with scientific research has disproved this notion and autism has been the source of much research and ongoing professional debate. ?Currently, autism is considered a unique disorder that occurs in approximately fifteen out of every 10,000 births. Autism is four times more common in boys than girls. It has been found throughout the world in families of all racial, ethnic, and social backgrounds? (Cash, 22). Family income, lifestyle, and educational levels do not affect the chance of autism's occurrence. Researchers all over the world are devoting considerable time, and energy into finding the answer to the critical question, ?What exactly causes autism Although a single specific cause of autism is not known, researchers believe several genes as well as environmental factors such as viruses or chemicals, contribute to the disorder. ?But finding the genes that cause the disorder has proven far more complicated than originally thought? (DeNoon). Scientists estimate that, in families with one autistic child, the risk of having a second child with the disorder is approximately 5%, or 1 in 20, which is greater than the risk for the general population. This genetic basis is believed by researchers to be highly complex, probably involving several genes in combination. CLSA study co-author Susan Santangelo portrays autism as a constellation of deficits. ?Some may be relatively benign in the absence of others. I think it's relatively unlikely that any one gene will account for disease causation in any one subset of families. It's likely that more than one gene will be working in concert, although none of these genes themselves may be sufficient. Some of these genes may be causing milder effects in family members of these patients who are autistic. Some traits are much more frequent in family members? (DeNoon). Scientists also
Thursday, March 5, 2020
Civil Rights vs. Anti-Apartheid essays One definition of equality states that it is an agreement in value, rank, properties, and rights. As simple as this concept might seem to those who have grown up in a world where equality is a standard of living, it has not always been that easy for certain races, mainly Africans. Dating back as far as four hundred years ago when blacks came to America as slaves, this race has endured an ongoing struggle for freedom in a white man's world. The motivation for this race to fight back first came in America during the late eighteen hundred's when the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments were added to the Constitution during the Reconstruction Era. These Amendments were the first sign of hope that African Americans would receive justice and be recognized as a legitimate and equal race. Africans not only endured struggles in America, ironically, they faced the same issues in their native country, South Africa. White supremacy and segregation had been accepted in South Af rica prior to 1948, but apartheid was officially added to the South African government after the Afrikaner Nationalist party took office. The purpose of apartheid was to separate all races from each other. This government stated that the "whites, as the civilized race, were entitled to have absolute control over the state." Africans in both of these counties fought back against all odds to gain the respect that they deserved through both the Civil Rights Movement and the Anti-Apartheid Movement. ...
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
The nature of FDIs - Essay Example The second commonality mentioned is usually taken to be the more important defining feature of the two. FDI denotes a degree of direct ownership whereas indirect investments are those gaining exposure to enterprises without investing directly such as listed securities, investment funds and derivatives. (Blomstrom and Globerman, 2001) Previously, FDIs referred only to physical investments made by a local company to a foreign setting. Building factories, providing machineries and equipment were considered as FDIs while portfolio investments were considered as an indirect investment. However, the rapid globalization of markets served as an impetus to broaden the definition of FDI to include the lasting ownership of shares of companies and enterprises. As such, joint ventures, alliances where a company provides technological support and licensing of intellectual property and direct acquisition of a firm are now considered to be FDIs. (Sullivan and Sheffrin, 2003) The current requirement is that an international business relationship must be formed between the local entity and the foreign affiliate. Foreign Direct Investors can either be a private or a public entity and may involve an incorporated or unincorporated organization or a lone individual. In any case, the foreign entity should provide the local entity a certain level of control in its management. According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), control can come in the form of a 10% ownership as a minimum. In cases where this are not present, the investment made is known as portfolio investment. The ownership implies that the investor is afforded control in the management and decision-making of the enterprise. However, the data from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Economic Development indicate that there are countries where the 10% ownership is treated in a flexible manner to accommodate local legal and business environment circumstances. There are cases where the o wnership is less than 10% but the investor is afforded an effective voice and there are cases where exercise of influence control is not given even if the investor exceeds 10% ownership. FDI Classification According to UNCTAD (2007), FDIs are classified according to certain defined factors. A classification based on the direction of FDI generates two broad types: outward-bound and inward-bound. Outward-bound FDIs are those investments provided by local entities to foreign partners while inward-bound FDIs have local entities as the beneficiary of investments from abroad. FDIs can also be classified according to the nature it is conducted. Vertical Foreign Direct Investments exist when a local entity owns some shares in a foreign enterprise and is using the business arrangement to either generate supplies or be the one supplying. Horizontal Foreign Direct Investment occurs when a local entity, usually a multinational company, establishes a similar business operation in foreign settings. FDIs can also be classified according to its motives. If the FDI was made to explore new opportunities in new markets or strengthen the existing market structure, we have a 'market-seeking FDI'. When the FDI was made because the foreign setting provides resources that are not locally available at the same degree,